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Monday, February 3, 2014

Life in Christ: The Sixth Commandment


PART THREE
LIFE IN CHRIST
SECTION TWO
THE TEN COMMANDMENTS
CHAPTER TWO
"YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF"
ARTICLE 6
THE SIXTH COMMANDMENT
You shall not commit adultery.113
You have heard that it was said, "You shall not commit adultery." But I say to you that every
one who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart.114
* I. "MALE AND FEMALE HE CREATED THEM . . ."
2331 "God is love and in himself he lives a mystery of personal loving communion. Creating the human
race in his own image . . .. God inscribed in the humanity of man and woman the vocation, and thus the
capacity and responsibility, of love and communion."115
"God created man in his own image . . . male and female he created them";116 He blessed them and
said, "Be fruitful and multiply";117 "When God created man, he made him in the likeness of God. Male
and female he created them, and he blessed them and named them Man when they were created."118
2332 Sexuality affects all aspects of the human person in the unity of his body and soul. It especially
concerns affectivity, the capacity to love and to procreate, and in a more general way the aptitude for
forming bonds of communion with others.
2333 Everyone, man and woman, should acknowledge and accept his sexual identity. Physical, moral,
and spiritual difference and complementarity are oriented toward the goods of marriage and the
flourishing of family life. The harmony of the couple and of society depends in part on the way in which
the complementarity, needs, and mutual support between the sexes are lived out.
2334 "In creating men 'male and female,' God gives man and woman an equal personal dignity."119
"Man is a person, man and woman equally so, since both were created in the image and likeness of the
personal God."120
2335 Each of the two sexes is an image of the power and tenderness of God, with equal dignity though
in a different way. The union of man and woman in marriage is a way of imitating in the flesh the
Creator's generosity and fecundity: "Therefore a man leaves his father and his mother and cleaves to
his wife, and they become one flesh."121 All human generations proceed from this union.122
2336 Jesus came to restore creation to the purity of its origins. In the Sermon on the Mount, he
interprets God's plan strictly: "You have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery.' But I
say to you that every one who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in
his heart."123 What God has joined together, let not man put asunder.124
The tradition of the Church has understood the sixth commandment as encompassing the whole of
human sexuality.
II. THE VOCATION TO CHASTITY
2337 Chastity means the successful integration of sexuality within the person and thus the inner unity
of man in his bodily and spiritual being. Sexuality, in which man's belonging to the bodily and biological
world is expressed, becomes personal and truly human when it is integrated into the relationship of
one person to another, in the complete and lifelong mutual gift of a man and a woman.
The virtue of chastity therefore involves the integrity of the person and the integrality of the gift.
The integrity of the person
2338 The chaste person maintains the integrity of the powers of life and love placed in him. This
integrity ensures the unity of the person; it is opposed to any behavior that would impair it. It tolerates
neither a double life nor duplicity in speech.125
2339 Chastity includes an apprenticeship in self-mastery which is a training in human freedom. The
alternative is clear: either man governs his passions and finds peace, or he lets himself be dominated
by them and becomes unhappy.126 "Man's dignity therefore requires him to act out of conscious and
free choice, as moved and drawn in a personal way from within, and not by blind impulses in himself or
by mere external constraint. Man gains such dignity when, ridding himself of all slavery to the passions,
he presses forward to his goal by freely choosing what is good and, by his diligence and skill, effectively
secures for himself the means suited to this end."127
2340 Whoever wants to remain faithful to his baptismal promises and resist temptations will want to
adopt the means for doing so: self-knowledge, practice of an ascesis adapted to the situations that
confront him, obedience to God's commandments, exercise of the moral virtues, and fidelity to prayer.
"Indeed it is through chastity that we are gathered together and led back to the unity from which we
were fragmented into multiplicity."128
2341 The virtue of chastity comes under the cardinal virtue of temperance, which seeks to permeate
the passions and appetites of the senses with reason.
2342 Self-mastery is a long and exacting work. One can never consider it acquired once and for all. It
presupposes renewed effort at all stages of life.129 The effort required can be more intense in certain
periods, such as when the personality is being formed during childhood and adolescence.
2343 Chastity has laws of growth which progress through stages marked by imperfection and too often
by sin. "Man . . . day by day builds himself up through his many free decisions; and so he knows, loves,
and accomplishes moral good by stages of growth."130
2344 Chastity represents an eminently personal task; it also involves a cultural effort, for there is "an
interdependence between personal betterment and the improvement of society."131 Chastity
presupposes respect for the rights of the person, in particular the right to receive information and an
education that respect the moral and spiritual dimensions of human life.
2345 Chastity is a moral virtue. It is also a gift from God, a grace, a fruit of spiritual effort.132 The Holy
Spirit enables one whom the water of Baptism has regenerated to imitate the purity of Christ.133
The integrality of the gift of self
2346 Charity is the form of all the virtues. Under its influence, chastity appears as a school of the gift of
the person. Self-mastery is ordered to the gift of self. Chastity leads him who practices it to become a
witness to his neighbor of God's fidelity and loving kindness.
2347 The virtue of chastity blossoms in friendship. It shows the disciple how to follow and imitate him
who has chosen us as his friends,134 who has given himself totally to us and allows us to participate in
his divine estate. Chastity is a promise of immortality.
Chastity is expressed notably in friendship with one's neighbor. Whether it develops between persons
of the same or opposite sex, friendship represents a great good for all. It leads to spiritual communion.
The various forms of chastity
2348 All the baptized are called to chastity. The Christian has "put on Christ,"135 the model for all
chastity. All Christ's faithful are called to lead a chaste life in keeping with their particular states of life.
At the moment of his Baptism, the Christian is pledged to lead his affective life in chastity.
2349 "People should cultivate [chastity] in the way that is suited to their state of life. Some profess
virginity or consecrated celibacy which enables them to give themselves to God alone with an
undivided heart in a remarkable manner. Others live in the way prescribed for all by the moral law,
whether they are married or single."136 Married people are called to live conjugal chastity; others
practice chastity in continence:
There are three forms of the virtue of chastity: the first is that of spouses, the second that of
widows, and the third that of virgins. We do not praise any one of them to the exclusion of the
others. . . . This is what makes for the richness of the discipline of the Church.137
2350 Those who are engaged to marry are called to live chastity in continence. They should see in this
time of testing a discovery of mutual respect, an apprenticeship in fidelity, and the hope of receiving
one another from God. They should reserve for marriage the expressions of affection that belong to
married love. They will help each other grow in chastity.
Offenses against chastity
2351 Lust is disordered desire for or inordinate enjoyment of sexual pleasure. Sexual pleasure is
morally disordered when sought for itself, isolated from its procreative and unitive purposes.
2352 By masturbation is to be understood the deliberate stimulation of the genital organs in order to
derive sexual pleasure. "Both the Magisterium of the Church, in the course of a constant tradition, and
the moral sense of the faithful have been in no doubt and have firmly maintained that masturbation is
an intrinsically and gravely disordered action."138 "The deliberate use of the sexual faculty, for
whatever reason, outside of marriage is essentially contrary to its purpose." For here sexual pleasure is
sought outside of "the sexual relationship which is demanded by the moral order and in which the total
meaning of mutual self-giving and human procreation in the context of true love is achieved."139
To form an equitable judgment about the subjects' moral responsibility and to guide pastoral action,
one must take into account the affective immaturity, force of acquired habit, conditions of anxiety or
other psychological or social factors that lessen, if not even reduce to a minimum, moral culpability.
2353 Fornication is carnal union between an unmarried man and an unmarried woman. It is gravely
contrary to the dignity of persons and of human sexuality which is naturally ordered to the good of
spouses and the generation and education of children. Moreover, it is a grave scandal when there is
corruption of the young.
2354 Pornography consists in removing real or simulated sexual acts from the intimacy of the partners,
in order to display them deliberately to third parties. It offends against chastity because it perverts the
conjugal act, the intimate giving of spouses to each other. It does grave injury to the dignity of its
participants (actors, vendors, the public), since each one becomes an object of base pleasure and illicit
profit for others. It immerses all who are involved in the illusion of a fantasy world. It is a grave offense.
Civil authorities should prevent the production and distribution of pornographic materials.
2355 Prostitution does injury to the dignity of the person who engages in it, reducing the person to an
instrument of sexual pleasure. The one who pays sins gravely against himself: he violates the chastity
to which his Baptism pledged him and defiles his body, the temple of the Holy Spirit.140 Prostitution is a
social scourge. It usually involves women, but also men, children, and adolescents (The latter two cases
involve the added sin of scandal.). While it is always gravely sinful to engage in prostitution, the
imputability of the offense can be attenuated by destitution, blackmail, or social pressure.
2356 Rape is the forcible violation of the sexual intimacy of another person. It does injury to justice and
charity. Rape deeply wounds the respect, freedom, and physical and moral integrity to which every
person has a right. It causes grave damage that can mark the victim for life. It is always an intrinsically
evil act. Graver still is the rape of children committed by parents (incest) or those responsible for the
education of the children entrusted to them.
Chastity and homosexuality
2357 Homosexuality refers to relations between men or between women who experience an exclusive
or predominant sexual attraction toward persons of the same sex. It has taken a great variety of forms
through the centuries and in different cultures. Its psychological genesis remains largely unexplained.
Basing itself on Sacred Scripture, which presents homosexual acts as acts of grave depravity,141
tradition has always declared that "homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered."142 They are contrary
to the natural law. They close the sexual act to the gift of life. They do not proceed from a genuine
affective and sexual complementarity. Under no circumstances can they be approved.
2358 The number of men and women who have deep-seated homosexual tendencies is not negligible.
This inclination, which is objectively disordered, constitutes for most of them a trial. They must be
accepted with respect, compassion, and sensitivity. Every sign of unjust discrimination in their regard
should be avoided. These persons are called to fulfill God's will in their lives and, if they are Christians,
to unite to the sacrifice of the Lord's Cross the difficulties they may encounter from their condition.
2359 Homosexual persons are called to chastity. By the virtues of self-mastery that teach them inner
freedom, at times by the support of disinterested friendship, by prayer and sacramental grace, they
can and should gradually and resolutely approach Christian perfection.
III. THE LOVE OF HUSBAND AND WIFE
2360 Sexuality is ordered to the conjugal love of man and woman. In marriage the physical intimacy of
the spouses becomes a sign and pledge of spiritual communion. Marriage bonds between baptized
persons are sanctified by the sacrament.
2361 "Sexuality, by means of which man and woman give themselves to one another through the acts
which are proper and exclusive to spouses, is not something simply biological, but concerns the
innermost being of the human person as such. It is realized in a truly human way only if it is an integral
part of the love by which a man and woman commit themselves totally to one another until death."143
Tobias got out of bed and said to Sarah, "Sister, get up, and let us pray and implore our Lord
that he grant us mercy and safety." So she got up, and they began to pray and implore that they
might be kept safe. Tobias began by saying, "Blessed are you, O God of our fathers. . . . You
made Adam, and for him you made his wife Eve as a helper and support. From the two of them
the race of mankind has sprung. You said, 'It is not good that the man should be alone; let us
make a helper for him like himself.' I now am taking this kinswoman of mine, not because of
lust, but with sincerity. Grant that she and I may find mercy and that we may grow old
together." And they both said, "Amen, Amen." Then they went to sleep for the night.144
2362 "The acts in marriage by which the intimate and chaste union of the spouses takes place are
noble and honorable; the truly human performance of these acts fosters the self-giving they signify and
enriches the spouses in joy and gratitude."145 Sexuality is a source of joy and pleasure:
The Creator himself . . . established that in the [generative] function, spouses should experience
pleasure and enjoyment of body and spirit. Therefore, the spouses do nothing evil in seeking
this pleasure and enjoyment. They accept what the Creator has intended for them. At the same
time, spouses should know how to keep themselves within the limits of just moderation.146
2363 The spouses' union achieves the twofold end of marriage: the good of the spouses themselves
and the transmission of life. These two meanings or values of marriage cannot be separated without
altering the couple's spiritual life and compromising the goods of marriage and the future of the family.
The conjugal love of man and woman thus stands under the twofold obligation of fidelity and
fecundity.
* Conjugal fidelity
2364 The married couple forms "the intimate partnership of life and love established by the Creator
and governed by his laws; it is rooted in the conjugal covenant, that is, in their irrevocable personal
consent."147 Both give themselves definitively and totally to one another. They are no longer two; from
now on they form one flesh. The covenant they freely contracted imposes on the spouses the
obligation to preserve it as unique and indissoluble.148 "What therefore God has joined together, let
not man put asunder."149
2365 Fidelity expresses constancy in keeping one's given word. God is faithful. The Sacrament of
Matrimony enables man and woman to enter into Christ's fidelity for his Church. Through conjugal
chastity, they bear witness to this mystery before the world.
St. John Chrysostom suggests that young husbands should say to their wives: I have taken you
in my arms, and I love you, and I prefer you to my life itself. For the present life is nothing, and
my most ardent dream is to spend it with you in such a way that we may be assured of not
being separated in the life reserved for us. . . . I place your love above all things, and nothing
would be more bitter or painful to me than to be of a different mind than you.150
* The fecundity of marriage
2366 Fecundity is a gift, an end of marriage, for conjugal love naturally tends to be fruitful. A child does
not come from outside as something added on to the mutual love of the spouses, but springs from the
very heart of that mutual giving, as its fruit and fulfillment. So the Church, which is "on the side of
life,"151 teaches that "it is necessary that each and every marriage act remain ordered per se to the
procreation of human life."152 "This particular doctrine, expounded on numerous occasions by the
Magisterium, is based on the inseparable connection, established by God, which man on his own
initiative may not break, between the unitive significance and the procreative significance which are
both inherent to the marriage act."153
2367 Called to give life, spouses share in the creative power and fatherhood of God.154 "Married
couples should regard it as their proper mission to transmit human life and to educate their children;
they should realize that they are thereby cooperating with the love of God the Creator and are, in a
certain sense, its interpreters. They will fulfill this duty with a sense of human and Christian
responsibility."155
2368 A particular aspect of this responsibility concerns the regulation of procreation. For just reasons,
spouses may wish to space the births of their children. It is their duty to make certain that their desire
is not motivated by selfishness but is in conformity with the generosity appropriate to responsible
parenthood. Moreover, they should conform their behavior to the objective criteria of morality:
When it is a question of harmonizing married love with the responsible transmission of life, the
morality of the behavior does not depend on sincere intention and evaluation of motives alone;
but it must be determined by objective criteria, criteria drawn from the nature of the person
and his acts criteria that respect the total meaning of mutual self-giving and human procreation
in the context of true love; this is possible only if the virtue of married chastity is practiced with
sincerity of heart.156
2369 "By safeguarding both these essential aspects, the unitive and the procreative, the conjugal act
preserves in its fullness the sense of true mutual love and its orientation toward man's exalted
vocation to parenthood."157
2370 Periodic continence, that is, the methods of birth regulation based on self-observation and the
use of infertile periods, is in conformity with the objective criteria of morality.158 These methods
respect the bodies of the spouses, encourage tenderness between them, and favor the education of an
authentic freedom. In contrast, "every action which, whether in anticipation of the conjugal act, or in
its accomplishment, or in the development of its natural consequences, proposes, whether as an end
or as a means, to render procreation impossible" is intrinsically evil:159
Thus the innate language that expresses the total reciprocal self-giving of husband and wife is
overlaid, through contraception, by an objectively contradictory language, namely, that of not
giving oneself totally to the other. This leads not only to a positive refusal to be open to life but
also to a falsification of the inner truth of conjugal love, which is called upon to give itself in
personal totality. . . . The difference, both anthropological and moral, between contraception
and recourse to the rhythm of the cycle . . . involves in the final analysis two irreconcilable
concepts of the human person and of human sexuality.160
2371 "Let all be convinced that human life and the duty of transmitting it are not limited by the
horizons of this life only: their true evaluation and full significance can be understood only in reference
to man's eternal destiny."161
2372 The state has a responsibility for its citizens' well-being. In this capacity it is legitimate for it to
intervene to orient the demography of the population. This can be done by means of objective and
respectful information, but certainly not by authoritarian, coercive measures. The state may not
legitimately usurp the initiative of spouses, who have the primary responsibility for the procreation
and education of their children.162 In this area, it is not authorized to employ means contrary to the
moral law.
The gift of a child
2373 Sacred Scripture and the Church's traditional practice see in large families a sign of God's blessing
and the parents' generosity.163
2374 Couples who discover that they are sterile suffer greatly. "What will you give me," asks Abraham
of God, "for I continue childless?"164 And Rachel cries to her husband Jacob, "Give me children, or I
shall die!"165
2375 Research aimed at reducing human sterility is to be encouraged, on condition that it is placed "at
the service of the human person, of his inalienable rights, and his true and integral good according to
the design and will of God."166
2376 Techniques that entail the dissociation of husband and wife, by the intrusion of a person other
than the couple (donation of sperm or ovum, surrogate uterus), are gravely immoral. These techniques
(heterologous artificial insemination and fertilization) infringe the child's right to be born of a father
and mother known to him and bound to each other by marriage. They betray the spouses' "right to
become a father and a mother only through each other."167
2377 Techniques involving only the married couple (homologous artificial insemination and
fertilization) are perhaps less reprehensible, yet remain morally unacceptable. They dissociate the
sexual act from the procreative act. The act which brings the child into existence is no longer an act by
which two persons give themselves to one another, but one that "entrusts the life and identity of the
embryo into the power of doctors and biologists and establishes the domination of technology over
the origin and destiny of the human person. Such a relationship of domination is in itself contrary to
the dignity and equality that must be common to parents and children."168 "Under the moral aspect
procreation is deprived of its proper perfection when it is not willed as the fruit of the conjugal act,
that is to say, of the specific act of the spouses' union . . . . Only respect for the link between the
meanings of the conjugal act and respect for the unity of the human being make possible procreation
in conformity with the dignity of the person."169
2378 A child is not something owed to one, but is a gift. The "supreme gift of marriage" is a human
person. A child may not be considered a piece of property, an idea to which an alleged "right to a child"
would lead. In this area, only the child possesses genuine rights: the right "to be the fruit of the specific
act of the conjugal love of his parents," and "the right to be respected as a person from the moment of
his conception."170
2379 The Gospel shows that physical sterility is not an absolute evil. Spouses who still suffer from
infertility after exhausting legitimate medical procedures should unite themselves with the Lord's
Cross, the source of all spiritual fecundity. They can give expression to their generosity by adopting
abandoned children or performing demanding services for others.
IV. OFFENSES AGAINST THE DIGNITY OF MARRIAGE
Adultery
2380 Adultery refers to marital infidelity. When two partners, of whom at least one is married to
another party, have sexual relations - even transient ones - they commit adultery. Christ condemns
even adultery of mere desire.171 The sixth commandment and the New Testament forbid adultery
absolutely.172 The prophets denounce the gravity of adultery; they see it as an image of the sin of
idolatry.173
2381 Adultery is an injustice. He who commits adultery fails in his commitment. He does injury to the
sign of the covenant which the marriage bond is, transgresses the rights of the other spouse, and
undermines the institution of marriage by breaking the contract on which it is based. He compromises
the good of human generation and the welfare of children who need their parents' stable union.
Divorce
2382 The Lord Jesus insisted on the original intention of the Creator who willed that marriage be
indissoluble.174 He abrogates the accommodations that had slipped into the old Law.175
Between the baptized, "a ratified and consummated marriage cannot be dissolved by any human
power or for any reason other than death."176
2383 The separation of spouses while maintaining the marriage bond can be legitimate in certain cases
provided for by canon law.177
If civil divorce remains the only possible way of ensuring certain legal rights, the care of the children, or
the protection of inheritance, it can be tolerated and does not constitute a moral offense.
2384 Divorce is a grave offense against the natural law. It claims to break the contract, to which the
spouses freely consented, to live with each other till death. Divorce does injury to the covenant of
salvation, of which sacramental marriage is the sign. Contracting a new union, even if it is recognized
by civil law, adds to the gravity of the rupture: the remarried spouse is then in a situation of public and
permanent adultery:
If a husband, separated from his wife, approaches another woman, he is an adulterer because
he makes that woman commit adultery, and the woman who lives with him is an adulteress,
because she has drawn another's husband to herself.178
2385 Divorce is immoral also because it introduces disorder into the family and into society. This
disorder brings grave harm to the deserted spouse, to children traumatized by the separation of their
parents and often torn between them, and because of its contagious effect which makes it truly a
plague on society.
2386 It can happen that one of the spouses is the innocent victim of a divorce decreed by civil law; this
spouse therefore has not contravened the moral law. There is a considerable difference between a
spouse who has sincerely tried to be faithful to the sacrament of marriage and is unjustly abandoned,
and one who through his own grave fault destroys a canonically valid marriage.179
Other offenses against the dignity of marriage
2387 The predicament of a man who, desiring to convert to the Gospel, is obliged to repudiate one or
more wives with whom he has shared years of conjugal life, is understandable. However polygamy is
not in accord with the moral law." [Conjugal] communion is radically contradicted by polygamy; this, in
fact, directly negates the plan of God which was revealed from the beginning, because it is contrary to
the equal personal dignity of men and women who in matrimony give themselves with a love that is
total and therefore unique and exclusive."180 The Christian who has previously lived in polygamy has a
grave duty in justice to honor the obligations contracted in regard to his former wives and his children.
2388 Incest designates intimate relations between relatives or in-laws within a degree that prohibits
marriage between them.181 St. Paul stigmatizes this especially grave offense: "It is actually reported
that there is immorality among you . . . for a man is living with his father's wife. . . . In the name of the
Lord Jesus . . . you are to deliver this man to Satan for the destruction of the flesh. . . . "182 Incest
corrupts family relationships and marks a regression toward animality.
2389 Connected to incest is any sexual abuse perpetrated by adults on children or adolescents
entrusted to their care. The offense is compounded by the scandalous harm done to the physical and
moral integrity of the young, who will remain scarred by it all their lives; and the violation of
responsibility for their upbringing.
2390 In a so-called free union, a man and a woman refuse to give juridical and public form to a liaison
involving sexual intimacy.
The expression "free union" is fallacious: what can "union" mean when the partners make no
commitment to one another, each exhibiting a lack of trust in the other, in himself, or in the future?
The expression covers a number of different situations: concubinage, rejection of marriage as such, or
inability to make long-term commitments.183 All these situations offend against the dignity of marriage;
they destroy the very idea of the family; they weaken the sense of fidelity. They are contrary to the
moral law. The sexual act must take place exclusively within marriage. Outside of marriage it always
constitutes a grave sin and excludes one from sacramental communion.
2391 Some today claim a "right to a trial marriage" where there is an intention of getting married
later. However firm the purpose of those who engage in premature sexual relations may be, "the fact is
that such liaisons can scarcely ensure mutual sincerity and fidelity in a relationship between a man and
a woman, nor, especially, can they protect it from inconstancy of desires or whim."184 Carnal union is
morally legitimate only when a definitive community of life between a man and woman has been
established. Human love does not tolerate "trial marriages." It demands a total and definitive gift of
persons to one another.185
IN BRIEF
2392 "Love is the fundamental and innate vocation of every human being" (FC 11).
2393 By creating the human being man and woman, God gives personal dignity equally to the one and
the other. Each of them, man and woman, should acknowledge and accept his sexual identity.
2394 Christ is the model of chastity. Every baptized person is called to lead a chaste life, each according
to his particular state of life.
2395 Chastity means the integration of sexuality within the person. It includes an apprenticeship in
self-mastery.
2396 Among the sins gravely contrary to chastity are masturbation, fornication, pornography, and
homosexual practices.
2397 The covenant which spouses have freely entered into entails faithful love. It imposes on them the
obligation to keep their marriage indissoluble.
2398 Fecundity is a good, a gift and an end of marriage. By giving life, spouses participate in God's
fatherhood.
2399 The regulation of births represents one of the aspects of responsible fatherhood and
motherhood. Legitimate intentions on the part of the spouses do not justify recourse to morally
unacceptable means (for example, direct sterilization or contraception).
2400 Adultery, divorce, polygamy, and free union are grave offenses against the dignity of marriage.
113 Ex 20:14; Deut 5:18.
114 Mt 5:27-28.
115 FC 11.
116 Gen 1:27.
117 Gen 1:28.
118 Gen 5:1-2.
119 FC 22; Cf. GS 49 § 2.
120 MD 6.
121 Gen 2:24.
122 Cf. Gen 4:1-2, 25-26; 5:1.
123 Mt 5:27-28.
124 Cf. Mt 19:6.
125 Cf. Mt 5:37.
126 Cf. Sir 1:22.
127 GS 17.
128 St. Augustine, Conf. 10,29,40:PL 32,796.
129 Cf. Titus 2:1-6.
130 FC 34.
131 GS 25 § 1.
132 Cf. Gal 5:22.
133 Cf. 1 Jn 3:3.
134 Cf. Jn 15:15.
135 Gal 3:27.
136 CDF, Persona humana 11.
137 St. Ambrose, De viduis 4,23:PL 16,255A.
138 CDF, Persona humana 9.
139 CDF, Persona humana 9.
140 Cf. 1 Cor 6:15-20.
141 Cf. Gen 191-29; Rom 124-27; 1 Cor 6:10; 1 Tim 1:10.
142 CDF, Persona humana 8.
143 FC 11.
144 Tob 8:4-9.
145 GS 49 § 2.
146 Pius XII, Discourse, October 29, 1951.
147 GS 48 § 1.
148 Cf. CIC, can. 1056.
149 Mk 109; cf. Mt 19:1-12; 1 Cor 7:10-11.
150 St. John Chrysostom, Hom. in Eph. 20,8:PG 62,146-147.
151 FC 30.
152 HV 11.
153 HV 12; cf. Pius XI, encyclical, Casti connubii.
154 Cf. Eph 3:14; Mt 23:9.
155 GS 50 § 2.
156 GS 51 § 3.
157 Cf. HV 12.
158 HV 16.
159 HV 14.
160 FC 32.
161 GS 51 § 4.
162 Cf. HV 23; PP 37.
163 Cf. GS 50 § 2.
164 Gen 15:2.
165 Gen 30:1.
166 CDF, Donum vitae intro.,2.
167 CDF, Donum vitae II,1.
168 CDF, Donum vitae II,5.
169 CDF, Donum vitae II,4.
170 CDF, Donum vitae II,8.
171 Cf. Mt 5:27-28.
172 Cf. Mt 5:32; 19:6; Mk 10:11; 1 Cor 6:9-10.
173 Cf. Hos 2:7; Jer 5:7; 13:27.
174 Cf. Mt 5:31-32; 19:3-9; Mk 10:9; Lk 16:18; 1 Cor 7:10-ll.
175 Cf. Mt 19:7-9.
176 CIC, can. 1141.
177 Cf. CIC, cann. 1151-1155.
178 St. Basil, Moralia 73,1:PG 31,849-852.
179 Cf. FC 84.
180 FC 19; cf. GS 47 § 2.
181 Cf. Lev 18:7-20.
182 1 Cor 5:1, 4-5.
183 Cf. FC 81.
184 CDF, Persona humana 7.
185 Cf. FC 80.

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