LIFE IN CHRIST
THE TEN COMMANDMENTS
"YOU SHALL LOVE THE LORD YOUR GOD WITH ALL YOUR HEART, AND WITH ALL YOUR SOUL, AND
WITH ALL YOUR MIND"
2083 Jesus summed up man's duties toward God in this saying: "You shall love the Lord your God with
all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind."1 This immediately echoes the solemn
call: "Hear, O Israel: the LORD our God is one LORD."2
God has loved us first. The love of the One God is recalled in the first of the "ten words." The
commandments then make explicit the response of love that man is called to give to his God.
1 Mt 22:37; cf. Lk 10:27:". . . and with all your strength."
2 Deut 6:4.
LIFE IN CHRIST
THE TEN COMMANDMENTS
"YOU SHALL LOVE THE LORD YOUR GOD WITH ALL YOUR HEART, AND WITH ALL YOUR SOUL, AND
WITH ALL YOUR MIND"
THE FIRST COMMANDMENT
I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of
bondage. You shall have no other gods before me. You shall not make for yourself a graven
image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or
that is in the water under the earth; you shall not bow down to them or serve them.3
It is written: "You shall worship the Lord your God and him only shall you serve."4
I. "YOU SHALL WORSHIP THE LORD YOUR GOD AND HIM ONLY SHALL YOU SERVE"
2084 God makes himself known by recalling his all-powerful loving, and liberating action in the history
of the one he addresses: "I brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." The
first word contains the first commandment of the Law: "You shall fear the LORD your God; you shall
serve him. . . . You shall not go after other gods."5 God's first call and just demand is that man accept
him and worship him.
2085 The one and true God first reveals his glory to Israel.6 The revelation of the vocation and truth of
man is linked to the revelation of God. Man's vocation is to make God manifest by acting in conformity
with his creation "in the image and likeness of God":
There will never be another God, Trypho, and there has been no other since the world began
. . . than he who made and ordered the universe. We do not think that our God is different from
yours. He is the same who brought your fathers out of Egypt "by his powerful hand and his
outstretched arm." We do not place our hope in some other god, for there is none, but in the
same God as you do: the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.7
2086 "The first commandment embraces faith, hope, and charity. When we say 'God' we confess a
constant, unchangeable being, always the same, faithful and just, without any evil. It follows that we
must necessarily accept his words and have complete faith in him and acknowledge his authority. He is
almighty, merciful, and infinitely beneficent. Who could not place all hope in him? Who could not love
him when contemplating the treasures of goodness and love he has poured out on us? Hence the
formula God employs in the Scripture at the beginning and end of his commandments: 'I am the
2087 Our moral life has its source in faith in God who reveals his love to us. St. Paul speaks of the
"obedience of faith"9 as our first obligation. He shows that "ignorance of God" is the principle and
explanation of all moral deviations.10 Our duty toward God is to believe in him and to bear witness to
2088 The first commandment requires us to nourish and protect our faith with prudence and vigilance,
and to reject everything that is opposed to it. There are various ways of sinning against faith:
Voluntary doubt about the faith disregards or refuses to hold as true what God has revealed and the
Church proposes for belief. Involuntary doubt refers to hesitation in believing, difficulty in overcoming
objections connected with the faith, or also anxiety aroused by its obscurity. If deliberately cultivated
doubt can lead to spiritual blindness.
2089 Incredulity is the neglect of revealed truth or the willful refusal to assent to it. "Heresy is the
obstinate post-baptismal denial of some truth which must be believed with divine and catholic faith, or
it is likewise an obstinate doubt concerning the same; apostasy is the total repudiation of the Christian
faith; schism is the refusal of submission to the Roman Pontiff or of communion with the members of
the Church subject to him."11
2090 When God reveals Himself and calls him, man cannot fully respond to the divine love by his own
powers. He must hope that God will give him the capacity to love Him in return and to act in
conformity with the commandments of charity. Hope is the confident expectation of divine blessing
and the beatific vision of God; it is also the fear of offending God's love and of incurring punishment.
2091 The first commandment is also concerned with sins against hope, namely, despair and
By despair, man ceases to hope for his personal salvation from God, for help in attaining it or for the
forgiveness of his sins. Despair is contrary to God's goodness, to his justice - for the Lord is faithful to
his promises - and to his mercy.
2092 There are two kinds of presumption. Either man presumes upon his own capacities, (hoping to be
able to save himself without help from on high), or he presumes upon God's almighty power or his
mercy (hoping to obtain his forgiveness without conversion and glory without merit).
2093 Faith in God's love encompasses the call and the obligation to respond with sincere love to divine
charity. The first commandment enjoins us to love God above everything and all creatures for him and
because of him.12
2094 One can sin against God's love in various ways:
- indifference neglects or refuses to reflect on divine charity; it fails to consider its prevenient goodness
and denies its power.
- ingratitude fails or refuses to acknowledge divine charity and to return him love for love.
- lukewarmness is hesitation or negligence in responding to divine love; it can imply refusal to give
oneself over to the prompting of charity.
- acedia or spiritual sloth goes so far as to refuse the joy that comes from God and to be repelled by
- hatred of God comes from pride. It is contrary to love of God, whose goodness it denies, and whom it
presumes to curse as the one who forbids sins and inflicts punishments.
II. "HIM ONLY SHALL YOU SERVE"
2095 The theological virtues of faith, hope, and charity inform and give life to the moral virtues. Thus
charity leads us to render to God what we as creatures owe him in all justice. The virtue of religion
disposes us to have this attitude.
2096 Adoration is the first act of the virtue of religion. To adore God is to acknowledge him as God, as
the Creator and Savior, the Lord and Master of everything that exists, as infinite and merciful Love.
"You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve," says Jesus, citing Deuteronomy.13
2097 To adore God is to acknowledge, in respect and absolute submission, the "nothingness of the
creature" who would not exist but for God. To adore God is to praise and exalt him and to humble
oneself, as Mary did in the Magnificat, confessing with gratitude that he has done great things and holy
is his name.14 The worship of the one God sets man free from turning in on himself, from the slavery of
sin and the idolatry of the world.
2098 The acts of faith, hope, and charity enjoined by the first commandment are accomplished in
prayer. Lifting up the mind toward God is an expression of our adoration of God: prayer of praise and
thanksgiving, intercession and petition. Prayer is an indispensable condition for being able to obey
God's commandments. "[We] ought always to pray and not lose heart."15
2099 It is right to offer sacrifice to God as a sign of adoration and gratitude, supplication and
communion: "Every action done so as to cling to God in communion of holiness, and thus achieve
blessedness, is a true sacrifice."16
2100 Outward sacrifice, to be genuine, must be the expression of spiritual sacrifice: "The sacrifice
acceptable to God is a broken spirit. . . . "17 The prophets of the Old Covenant often denounced
sacrifices that were not from the heart or not coupled with love of neighbor.18 Jesus recalls the words
of the prophet Hosea: "I desire mercy, and not sacrifice."19 The only perfect sacrifice is the one that
Christ offered on the cross as a total offering to the Father's love and for our salvation.20 By uniting
ourselves with his sacrifice we can make our lives a sacrifice to God.
Promises and vows
2101 In many circumstances, the Christian is called to make promises to God. Baptism and
Confirmation, Matrimony and Holy Orders always entail promises. Out of personal devotion, the
Christian may also promise to God this action, that prayer, this alms-giving, that pilgrimage, and so
forth. Fidelity to promises made to God is a sign of the respect owed to the divine majesty and of love
for a faithful God.
2102 "A vow is a deliberate and free promise made to God concerning a possible and better good
which must be fulfilled by reason of the virtue of religion,"21 A vow is an act of devotion in which the
Christian dedicates himself to God or promises him some good work. By fulfilling his vows he renders
to God what has been promised and consecrated to Him. The Acts of the Apostles shows us St. Paul
concerned to fulfill the vows he had made.22
2103 The Church recognizes an exemplary value in the vows to practice the evangelical counsels:23
Mother Church rejoices that she has within herself many men and women who pursue the
Savior's self-emptying more closely and show it forth more clearly, by undertaking poverty with
the freedom of the children of God, and renouncing their own will: they submit themselves to
man for the sake of God, thus going beyond what is of precept in the matter of perfection, so as
to conform themselves more fully to the obedient Christ.24
The Church can, in certain cases and for proportionate reasons, dispense from vows and promises25
The social duty of religion and the right to religious freedom
2104 "All men are bound to seek the truth, especially in what concerns God and his Church, and to
embrace it and hold on to it as they come to know it."26 This duty derives from "the very dignity of the
human person."27 It does not contradict a "sincere respect" for different religions which frequently
"reflect a ray of that truth which enlightens all men,"28 nor the requirement of charity, which urges
Christians "to treat with love, prudence and patience those who are in error or ignorance with regard
to the faith."29
2105 The duty of offering God genuine worship concerns man both individually and socially. This is
"the traditional Catholic teaching on the moral duty of individuals and societies toward the true
religion and the one Church of Christ."30 By constantly evangelizing men, the Church works toward
enabling them "to infuse the Christian spirit into the mentality and mores, laws and structures of the
communities in which [they] live."31 The social duty of Christians is to respect and awaken in each man
the love of the true and the good. It requires them to make known the worship of the one true religion
which subsists in the Catholic and apostolic Church.32 Christians are called to be the light of the world.
Thus, the Church shows forth the kingship of Christ over all creation and in particular over human
2106 "Nobody may be forced to act against his convictions, nor is anyone to be restrained from acting
in accordance with his conscience in religious matters in private or in public, alone or in association
with others, within due limits."34 This right is based on the very nature of the human person, whose
dignity enables him freely to assent to the divine truth which transcends the temporal order. For this
reason it "continues to exist even in those who do not live up to their obligation of seeking the truth
and adhering to it."35
2107 "If because of the circumstances of a particular people special civil recognition is given to one
religious community in the constitutional organization of a state, the right of all citizens and religious
communities to religious freedom must be recognized and respected as well."36
2108 The right to religious liberty is neither a moral license to adhere to error, nor a supposed right to
error,37 but rather a natural right of the human person to civil liberty, i.e., immunity, within just limits,
from external constraint in religious matters by political authorities. This natural right ought to be
acknowledged in the juridical order of society in such a way that it constitutes a civil right.38
2109 The right to religious liberty can of itself be neither unlimited nor limited only by a "public order"
conceived in a positivist or naturalist manner.39 The "due limits" which are inherent in it must be
determined for each social situation by political prudence, according to the requirements of the
common good, and ratified by the civil authority in accordance with "legal principles which are in
conformity with the objective moral order."40
III. "YOU SHALL HAVE NO OTHER GODS BEFORE ME"
2110 The first commandment forbids honoring gods other than the one Lord who has revealed himself
to his people. It proscribes superstition and irreligion. Superstition in some sense represents a perverse
excess of religion; irreligion is the vice contrary by defect to the virtue of religion.
2111 Superstition is the deviation of religious feeling and of the practices this feeling imposes. It can
even affect the worship we offer the true God, e.g., when one attributes an importance in some way
magical to certain practices otherwise lawful or necessary. To attribute the efficacy of prayers or of
sacramental signs to their mere external performance, apart from the interior dispositions that they
demand, is to fall into superstition.41
2112 The first commandment condemns polytheism. It requires man neither to believe in, nor to
venerate, other divinities than the one true God. Scripture constantly recalls this rejection of "idols,
[of] silver and gold, the work of men's hands. They have mouths, but do not speak; eyes, but do not
see." These empty idols make their worshippers empty: "Those who make them are like them; so are
all who trust in them."42 God, however, is the "living God"43 who gives life and intervenes in history.
2113 Idolatry not only refers to false pagan worship. It remains a constant temptation to faith. Idolatry
consists in divinizing what is not God. Man commits idolatry whenever he honors and reveres a
creature in place of God, whether this be gods or demons (for example, satanism), power, pleasure,
race, ancestors, the state, money, etc. Jesus says, "You cannot serve God and mammon."44 Many
martyrs died for not adoring "the Beast"45 refusing even to simulate such worship. Idolatry rejects the
unique Lordship of God; it is therefore incompatible with communion with God.46
2114 Human life finds its unity in the adoration of the one God. The commandment to worship the
Lord alone integrates man and saves him from an endless disintegration. Idolatry is a perversion of
man's innate religious sense. An idolater is someone who "transfers his indestructible notion of God to
anything other than God."47
Divination and magic
2115 God can reveal the future to his prophets or to other saints. Still, a sound Christian attitude
consists in putting oneself confidently into the hands of Providence for whatever concerns the future,
and giving up all unhealthy curiosity about it. Improvidence, however, can constitute a lack of
2116 All forms of divination are to be rejected: recourse to Satan or demons, conjuring up the dead or
other practices falsely supposed to "unveil" the future.48 Consulting horoscopes, astrology, palm
reading, interpretation of omens and lots, the phenomena of clairvoyance, and recourse to mediums
all conceal a desire for power over time, history, and, in the last analysis, other human beings, as well
as a wish to conciliate hidden powers. They contradict the honor, respect, and loving fear that we owe
to God alone.
2117 All practices of magic or sorcery, by which one attempts to tame occult powers, so as to place
them at one's service and have a supernatural power over others - even if this were for the sake of
restoring their health - are gravely contrary to the virtue of religion. These practices are even more to
be condemned when accompanied by the intention of harming someone, or when they have recourse
to the intervention of demons. Wearing charms is also reprehensible. Spiritism often implies divination
or magical practices; the Church for her part warns the faithful against it. Recourse to so-called
traditional cures does not justify either the invocation of evil powers or the exploitation of another's
2118 God's first commandment condemns the main sins of irreligion: tempting God, in words or deeds,
sacrilege, and simony.
2119 Tempting God consists in putting his goodness and almighty power to the test by word or deed.
Thus Satan tried to induce Jesus to throw himself down from the Temple and, by this gesture, force
God to act.49 Jesus opposed Satan with the word of God: "You shall not put the LORD your God to the
test."50 The challenge contained in such tempting of God wounds the respect and trust we owe our
Creator and Lord. It always harbors doubt about his love, his providence, and his power.51
2120 Sacrilege consists in profaning or treating unworthily the sacraments and other liturgical actions,
as well as persons, things, or places consecrated to God. Sacrilege is a grave sin especially when
committed against the Eucharist, for in this sacrament the true Body of Christ is made substantially
present for us.52
2121 Simony is defined as the buying or selling of spiritual things.53 To Simon the magician, who
wanted to buy the spiritual power he saw at work in the apostles, St. Peter responded: "Your silver
perish with you, because you thought you could obtain God's gift with money!"54 Peter thus held to the
words of Jesus: "You received without pay, give without pay."55 It is impossible to appropriate to
oneself spiritual goods and behave toward them as their owner or master, for they have their source in
God. One can receive them only from him, without payment.
2122 The minister should ask nothing for the administration of the sacraments beyond the offerings
defined by the competent authority, always being careful that the needy are not deprived of the help
of the sacraments because of their poverty."56 The competent authority determines these "offerings"
in accordance with the principle that the Christian people ought to contribute to the support of the
Church's ministers. "The laborer deserves his food."57
2123 "Many . . . of our contemporaries either do not at all perceive, or explicitly reject, this intimate
and vital bond of man to God. Atheism must therefore be regarded as one of the most serious
problems of our time."58
2124 The name "atheism" covers many very different phenomena. One common form is the practical
materialism which restricts its needs and aspirations to space and time. Atheistic humanism falsely
considers man to be "an end to himself, and the sole maker, with supreme control, of his own
history."59 Another form of contemporary atheism looks for the liberation of man through economic
and social liberation. "It holds that religion, of its very nature, thwarts such emancipation by raising
man's hopes in a future life, thus both deceiving him and discouraging him from working for a better
form of life on earth."60
2125 Since it rejects or denies the existence of God, atheism is a sin against the virtue of religion.61 The
imputability of this offense can be significantly diminished in virtue of the intentions and the
circumstances. "Believers can have more than a little to do with the rise of atheism. To the extent that
they are careless about their instruction in the faith, or present its teaching falsely, or even fail in their
religious, moral, or social life, they must be said to conceal rather than to reveal the true nature of God
and of religion."62
2126 Atheism is often based on a false conception of human autonomy, exaggerated to the point of
refusing any dependence on God.63 Yet, "to acknowledge God is in no way to oppose the dignity of
man, since such dignity is grounded and brought to perfection in God. . . . "64 "For the Church knows
full well that her message is in harmony with the most secret desires of the human heart."65
2127 Agnosticism assumes a number of forms. In certain cases the agnostic refrains from denying God;
instead he postulates the existence of a transcendent being which is incapable of revealing itself, and
about which nothing can be said. In other cases, the agnostic makes no judgment about God's
existence, declaring it impossible to prove, or even to affirm or deny.
2128 Agnosticism can sometimes include a certain search for God, but it can equally express
indifferentism, a flight from the ultimate question of existence, and a sluggish moral conscience.
Agnosticism is all too often equivalent to practical atheism.
* IV. "YOU SHALL NOT MAKE FOR YOURSELF A GRAVEN IMAGE . . ."
2129 The divine injunction included the prohibition of every representation of God by the hand of
man. Deuteronomy explains: "Since you saw no form on the day that the Lord spoke to you at Horeb
out of the midst of the fire, beware lest you act corruptly by making a graven image for yourselves, in
the form of any figure. . . . "66 It is the absolutely transcendent God who revealed himself to Israel. "He
is the all," but at the same time "he is greater than all his works."67 He is "the author of beauty."68
2130 Nevertheless, already in the Old Testament, God ordained or permitted the making of images
that pointed symbolically toward salvation by the incarnate Word: so it was with the bronze serpent,
the ark of the covenant, and the cherubim.69
2131 Basing itself on the mystery of the incarnate Word, the seventh ecumenical council at Nicaea
(787) justified against the iconoclasts the veneration of icons - of Christ, but also of the Mother of God,
the angels, and all the saints. By becoming incarnate, the Son of God introduced a new "economy" of
2132 The Christian veneration of images is not contrary to the first commandment which proscribes
idols. Indeed, "the honor rendered to an image passes to its prototype," and "whoever venerates an
image venerates the person portrayed in it."70 The honor paid to sacred images is a "respectful
veneration," not the adoration due to God alone:
Religious worship is not directed to images in themselves, considered as mere things, but under
their distinctive aspect as images leading us on to God incarnate. The movement toward the
image does not terminate in it as image, but tends toward that whose image it is.71
2133 "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul and with all your
strength" (Deut 6:5).
2134 The first commandment summons man to believe in God, to hope in him, and to love him above
2135 "You shall worship the Lord your God" (Mt 4:10). Adoring God, praying to him, offering him the
worship that belongs to him, fulfilling the promises and vows made to him are acts of the virtue of
religion which fall under obedience to the first commandment.
2136 The duty to offer God authentic worship concerns man both as an individual and as a social being.
2137 "Men of the present day want to profess their religion freely in private and in public" (DH 15).
2138 Superstition is a departure from the worship that we give to the true God. It is manifested in
idolatry, as well as in various forms of divination and magic.
2139 Tempting God in words or deeds, sacrilege, and simony are sins of irreligion forbidden by the first
2140 Since it rejects or denies the existence of God, atheism is a sin against the first commandment.
2141 The veneration of sacred images is based on the mystery of the Incarnation of the Word of God.
It is not contrary to the first commandment.
3 Ex 20:2-5; cf. Deut 5:6-9.
4 Mt 4:10.
5 Deut 6:13-14.
6 Cf. Ex 19:16-25; 24:15-18.
7 St. Justin, Dial. cum Tryphone Judaeo 11,1:PG 6,497.
8 Roman Catechism 3,2,4.
9 Rom 1:5; 16:26.
10 Cf. Rom 1:18-32.
11 CIC, can. 751: emphasis added.
12 Cf. Deut 6:4-5.
13 Lk 4:8; Cf. Deut 6:13.
14 Cf. Lk 1:46-49.
15 Lk 18:1.
16 St. Augustine, De civ Dei 10,6:PL 41,283.
17 Ps 51:17.
18 Cf. Am 5:21-25; Isa 1:10-20.
19 Mt 9:13; 12:7; Cf. Hos 6:6.
20 Cf. Heb 9:13-14.
21 CIC, can. 1191 § 1.
22 Cf. Acts 18:18; 21:23-24.
23 Cf. CIC, can. 654.
24 LG 42 § 2.
25 Cf. CIC, cann. 692; 1196-1197.
26 DH 1 § 2.
27 DH 2 § 1.
28 NA 2 § 2.
29 DH 14 § 4.
30 DH 1 § 3.
31 AA 13 § 1.
32 Cf. DH 1.
33 Cf. AA 13; Leo XIII, Immortale Dei 3,17; Pius XI, Quas primas 8,20.
34 DH 2 § 1.
35 DH 2 § 2.
36 DH 6 § 3.
37 Cf. Leo XIII, Libertas praestantissimum 18; Pius XII AAS 1953,799.
38 Cf. DH 2.
39 Cf. Pius VI, Quod aliquantum (1791) 10; Pius IX, Quanta cura 3.
40 DH 7 § 3.
41 Cf. Mt 23:16-22.
42 Ps 115:4-5, 8; cf. Isa 44:9-20; Jer 10:1-16; Dan 14:1-30; Bar 6; Wis 13:1-15:19.
43 Josh 3:10; Ps 42:3; etc.
44 Mt 6:24.
45 Cf. Rev 13-14.
46 Cf. Gal 5:20; Eph 5:5.
47 Origen, Contra Celsum 2,40:PG 11,861.
48 Cf. Deut 18:10; Jer 29:8.
49 Cf. Lk 4:9.
50 Deut 6:16.
51 Cf. 1 Cor 10:9; Ex 17:2-7; Ps 95:9.
52 Cf. CIC, cann. 1367; 1376.
53 Cf. Acts 8:9-24.
54 Acts 8:20.
55 Mt 10:8; cf. already Isa 55:1.
56 CIC, can. 848.
57 Mt 10:10; cf. Lk 10:7; 2 Cor 9:5-18; 1 Tim 5:17-18.
58 GS 19 § 1.
59 GS 20 § 2.
60 GS 20 § 2.
61 Cf. Rom 1:18.
62 GS 19 § 3.
63 Cf. GS 20 § 1.
64 GS 21 § 3.
65 GS 21 § 7.
66 Deut 4:15-16.
67 Sir 43:27-28.
68 Wis 13:3.
69 Cf. Num 21:4-9; Wis 16:5-14; Jn 3:14-15; Ex 25:10-22; 1 Kings 6:23-28; 7:23-26.
70 St. Basil, De Spiritu Sancto 18,45:PG 32,149C; Council of Nicaea II: DS 601; cf. Council of Trent: DS
1821-1825; Vatican Council II: SC 126; LG 67.
71 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II,81,3 ad 3.