Wednesday, February 5, 2014

Life in Christ: The Eight Commandment

You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.253
It was said to the men of old, "You shall not swear falsely, but shall perform to the Lord what
you have sworn."254
2464 The eighth commandment forbids misrepresenting the truth in our relations with others. This
moral prescription flows from the vocation of the holy people to bear witness to their God who is the
truth and wills the truth. Offenses against the truth express by word or deed a refusal to commit
oneself to moral uprightness: they are fundamental infidelities to God and, in this sense, they
undermine the foundations of the covenant.
2465 The Old Testament attests that God is the source of all truth. His Word is truth. His Law is truth.
His "faithfulness endures to all generations."255 Since God is "true," the members of his people are
called to live in the truth.256
2466 In Jesus Christ, the whole of God's truth has been made manifest. "Full of grace and truth," he
came as the "light of the world," he is the Truth.257 "Whoever believes in me may not remain in
darkness."258 The disciple of Jesus continues in his word so as to know "the truth [that] will make you
free" and that sanctifies.259 To follow Jesus is to live in "the Spirit of truth," whom the Father sends in
his name and who leads "into all the truth."260 To his disciples Jesus teaches the unconditional love of
truth: "Let what you say be simply 'Yes or No.'"261
2467 Man tends by nature toward the truth. He is obliged to honor and bear witness to it: "It is in
accordance with their dignity that all men, because they are persons . . . are both impelled by their
nature and bound by a moral obligation to seek the truth, especially religious truth. They are also
bound to adhere to the truth once they come to know it and direct their whole lives in accordance with
the demands of truth."262
2468 Truth as uprightness in human action and speech is called truthfulness, sincerity, or candor. Truth
or truthfulness is the virtue which consists in showing oneself true in deeds and truthful in words, and
in guarding against duplicity, dissimulation, and hypocrisy.
2469 "Men could not live with one another if there were not mutual confidence that they were being
truthful to one another."263 The virtue of truth gives another his just due. Truthfulness keeps to the just
mean between what ought to be expressed and what ought to be kept secret: it entails honesty and
discretion. In justice, "as a matter of honor, one man owes it to another to manifest the truth."264
2470 The disciple of Christ consents to "live in the truth," that is, in the simplicity of a life in conformity
with the Lord's example, abiding in his truth. "If we say we have fellowship with him while we walk in
darkness, we lie and do not live according to the truth."265
2471 Before Pilate, Christ proclaims that he "has come into the world, to bear witness to the truth."266
The Christian is not to "be ashamed then of testifying to our Lord."267 In situations that require witness
to the faith, the Christian must profess it without equivocation, after the example of St. Paul before his
judges. We must keep "a clear conscience toward God and toward men."268
2472 The duty of Christians to take part in the life of the Church impels them to act as witnesses of the
Gospel and of the obligations that flow from it. This witness is a transmission of the faith in words and
deeds. Witness is an act of justice that establishes the truth or makes it known.269
All Christians by the example of their lives and the witness of their word, wherever they live,
have an obligation to manifest the new man which they have put on in Baptism and to reveal
the power of the Holy Spirit by whom they were strengthened at Confirmation. 270
2473 Martyrdom is the supreme witness given to the truth of the faith: it means bearing witness even
unto death. The martyr bears witness to Christ who died and rose, to whom he is united by charity. He
bears witness to the truth of the faith and of Christian doctrine. He endures death through an act of
fortitude. "Let me become the food of the beasts, through whom it will be given me to reach God."271
2474 The Church has painstakingly collected the records of those who persevered to the end in
witnessing to their faith. These are the acts of the Martyrs. They form the archives of truth written in
letters of blood:
Neither the pleasures of the world nor the kingdoms of this age will be of any use to me. It is
better for me to die [in order to unite myself] to Christ Jesus than to reign over the ends of the
earth. I seek him who died for us; I desire him who rose for us. My birth is approaching. . .272
I bless you for having judged me worthy from this day and this hour to be counted among your
martyrs. . . . You have kept your promise, God of faithfulness and truth. For this reason and for
everything, I praise you, I bless you, I glorify you through the eternal and heavenly High Priest,
Jesus Christ, your beloved Son. Through him, who is with you and the Holy Spirit, may glory be
given to you, now and in the ages to come. Amen.273
2475 Christ's disciples have "put on the new man, created after the likeness of God in true
righteousness and holiness."274 By "putting away falsehood," they are to "put away all malice and all
guile and insincerity and envy and all slander."275
2476 False witness and perjury. When it is made publicly, a statement contrary to the truth takes on a
particular gravity. In court it becomes false witness.276 When it is under oath, it is perjury. Acts such as
these contribute to condemnation of the innocent, exoneration of the guilty, or the increased
punishment of the accused.277 They gravely compromise the exercise of justice and the fairness of
judicial decisions.
2477 Respect for the reputation of persons forbids every attitude and word likely to cause them unjust
injury.278 He becomes guilty:
- of rash judgment who, even tacitly, assumes as true, without sufficient foundation, the moral fault of
a neighbor;
- of detraction who, without objectively valid reason, discloses another's faults and failings to persons
who did not know them;279
- of calumny who, by remarks contrary to the truth, harms the reputation of others and gives occasion
for false judgments concerning them.
2478 To avoid rash judgment, everyone should be careful to interpret insofar as possible his neighbor's
thoughts, words, and deeds in a favorable way:
Every good Christian ought to be more ready to give a favorable interpretation to another's
statement than to condemn it. But if he cannot do so, let him ask how the other understands it.
And if the latter understands it badly, let the former correct him with love. If that does not
suffice, let the Christian try all suitable ways to bring the other to a correct interpretation so
that he may be saved.280
2479 Detraction and calumny destroy the reputation and honor of one's neighbor. Honor is the social
witness given to human dignity, and everyone enjoys a natural right to the honor of his name and
reputation and to respect. Thus, detraction and calumny offend against the virtues of justice and
2480 Every word or attitude is forbidden which by flattery, adulation, or complaisance encourages and
confirms another in malicious acts and perverse conduct. Adulation is a grave fault if it makes one an
accomplice in another's vices or grave sins. Neither the desire to be of service nor friendship justifies
duplicitous speech. Adulation is a venial sin when it only seeks to be agreeable, to avoid evil, to meet a
need, or to obtain legitimate advantages.
2481 Boasting or bragging is an offense against truth. So is irony aimed at disparaging someone by
maliciously caricaturing some aspect of his behavior.
2482 "A lie consists in speaking a falsehood with the intention of deceiving."281 The Lord denounces
lying as the work of the devil: "You are of your father the devil, . . . there is no truth in him. When he
lies, he speaks according to his own nature, for he is a liar and the father of lies."282
2483 Lying is the most direct offense against the truth. To lie is to speak or act against the truth in
order to lead someone into error. By injuring man's relation to truth and to his neighbor, a lie offends
against the fundamental relation of man and of his word to the Lord.
2484 The gravity of a lie is measured against the nature of the truth it deforms, the circumstances, the
intentions of the one who lies, and the harm suffered by its victims. If a lie in itself only constitutes a
venial sin, it becomes mortal when it does grave injury to the virtues of justice and charity.
2485 By its very nature, lying is to be condemned. It is a profanation of speech, whereas the purpose of
speech is to communicate known truth to others. The deliberate intention of leading a neighbor into
error by saying things contrary to the truth constitutes a failure in justice and charity. The culpability is
greater when the intention of deceiving entails the risk of deadly consequences for those who are led
2486 Since it violates the virtue of truthfulness, a lie does real violence to another. It affects his ability
to know, which is a condition of every judgment and decision. It contains the seed of discord and all
consequent evils. Lying is destructive of society; it undermines trust among men and tears apart the
fabric of social relationships.
2487 Every offense committed against justice and truth entails the duty of reparation, even if its author
has been forgiven. When it is impossible publicly to make reparation for a wrong, it must be made
secretly. If someone who has suffered harm cannot be directly compensated, he must be given moral
satisfaction in the name of charity. This duty of reparation also concerns offenses against another's
reputation. This reparation, moral and sometimes material, must be evaluated in terms of the extent
of the damage inflicted. It obliges in conscience.
2488 The right to the communication of the truth is not unconditional. Everyone must conform his life
to the Gospel precept of fraternal love. This requires us in concrete situations to judge whether or not
it is appropriate to reveal the truth to someone who asks for it.
2489 Charity and respect for the truth should dictate the response to every request for information or
communication. The good and safety of others, respect for privacy, and the common good are
sufficient reasons for being silent about what ought not be known or for making use of a discreet
language. The duty to avoid scandal often commands strict discretion. No one is bound to reveal the
truth to someone who does not have the right to know it.283
2490 The secret of the sacrament of reconciliation is sacred, and cannot be violated under any pretext.
"The sacramental seal is inviolable; therefore, it is a crime for a confessor in any way to betray a
penitent by word or in any other manner or for any reason."284
2491 Professional secrets - for example, those of political office holders, soldiers, physicians, and
lawyers - or confidential information given under the seal of secrecy must be kept, save in exceptional
cases where keeping the secret is bound to cause very grave harm to the one who confided it, to the
one who received it or to a third party, and where the very grave harm can be avoided only by
divulging the truth. Even if not confided under the seal of secrecy, private information prejudicial to
another is not to be divulged without a grave and proportionate reason.
2492 Everyone should observe an appropriate reserve concerning persons' private lives. Those in
charge of communications should maintain a fair balance between the requirements of the common
good and respect for individual rights. Interference by the media in the private lives of persons
engaged in political or public activity is to be condemned to the extent that it infringes upon their
privacy and freedom.
2493 Within modern society the communications media play a major role in information, cultural
promotion, and formation. This role is increasing, as a result of technological progress, the extent and
diversity of the news transmitted, and the influence exercised on public opinion.
2494 The information provided by the media is at the service of the common good.285 Society has a
right to information based on truth, freedom, justice, and solidarity:
The proper exercise of this right demands that the content of the communication be true and -
within the limits set by justice and charity - complete. Further, it should be communicated
honestly and properly. This means that in the gathering and in the publication of news, the
moral law and the legitimate rights and dignity of man should be upheld.286
2495 "It is necessary that all members of society meet the demands of justice and charity in this
domain. They should help, through the means of social communication, in the formation and diffusion
of sound public opinion."287 Solidarity is a consequence of genuine and right communication and the
free circulation of ideas that further knowledge and respect for others.
2496 The means of social communication (especially the mass media) can give rise to a certain
passivity among users, making them less than vigilant consumers of what is said or shown. Users
should practice moderation and discipline in their approach to the mass media. They will want to form
enlightened and correct consciences the more easily to resist unwholesome influences.
2497 By the very nature of their profession, journalists have an obligation to serve the truth and not
offend against charity in disseminating information. They should strive to respect, with equal care, the
nature of the facts and the limits of critical judgment concerning individuals. They should not stoop to
2498 "Civil authorities have particular responsibilities in this field because of the common good. . . . It is
for the civil authority . . . to defend and safeguard a true and just freedom of information."288 By
promulgating laws and overseeing their application, public authorities should ensure that "public
morality and social progress are not gravely endangered" through misuse of the media.289 Civil
authorities should punish any violation of the rights of individuals to their reputation and privacy. They
should give timely and reliable reports concerning the general good or respond to the well-founded
concerns of the people. Nothing can justify recourse to disinformation for manipulating public opinion
through the media. Interventions by public authority should avoid injuring the freedom of individuals
or groups.
2499 Moral judgment must condemn the plague of totalitarian states which systematically falsify the
truth, exercise political control of opinion through the media, manipulate defendants and witnesses at
public trials, and imagine that they secure their tyranny by strangling and repressing everything they
consider "thought crimes."
2500 The practice of goodness is accompanied by spontaneous spiritual joy and moral beauty.
Likewise, truth carries with it the joy and splendor of spiritual beauty. Truth is beautiful in itself. Truth
in words, the rational expression of the knowledge of created and uncreated reality, is necessary to
man, who is endowed with intellect. But truth can also find other complementary forms of human
expression, above all when it is a matter of evoking what is beyond words: the depths of the human
heart, the exaltations of the soul, the mystery of God. Even before revealing himself to man in words of
truth, God reveals himself to him through the universal language of creation, the work of his Word, of
his wisdom: the order and harmony of the cosmos-which both the child and the scientist discover-
"from the greatness and beauty of created things comes a corresponding perception of their Creator,"
"for the author of beauty created them."290
[Wisdom] is a breath of the power of God, and a pure emanation of the glory of the Almighty;
therefore nothing defiled gains entrance into her. For she is a reflection of eternal light, a
spotless mirror of the working of God, and an image of his goodness.291 For [wisdom] is more
beautiful than the sun, and excels every constellation of the stars. Compared with the light she
is found to be superior, for it is succeeded by the night, but against wisdom evil does not
prevail.292 I became enamored of her beauty.293
2501 Created "in the image of God,"294 man also expresses the truth of his relationship with God the
Creator by the beauty of his artistic works. Indeed, art is a distinctively human form of expression;
beyond the search for the necessities of life which is common to all living creatures, art is a freely given
superabundance of the human being's inner riches. Arising from talent given by the Creator and from
man's own effort, art is a form of practical wisdom, uniting knowledge and skill,295 to give form to the
truth of reality in a language accessible to sight or hearing. To the extent that it is inspired by truth and
love of beings, art bears a certain likeness to God's activity in what he has created. Like any other
human activity, art is not an absolute end in itself, but is ordered to and ennobled by the ultimate end
of man.296
2502 Sacred art is true and beautiful when its form corresponds to its particular vocation: evoking and
glorifying, in faith and adoration, the transcendent mystery of God - the surpassing invisible beauty of
truth and love visible in Christ, who "reflects the glory of God and bears the very stamp of his nature,"
in whom "the whole fullness of deity dwells bodily."297 This spiritual beauty of God is reflected in the
most holy Virgin Mother of God, the angels, and saints. Genuine sacred art draws man to adoration, to
prayer, and to the love of God, Creator and Savior, the Holy One and Sanctifier.
2503 For this reason bishops, personally or through delegates, should see to the promotion of sacred
art, old and new, in all its forms and, with the same religious care, remove from the liturgy and from
places of worship everything which is not in conformity with the truth of faith and the authentic beauty
of sacred art.298
2504 "You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor" (Ex 20:16). Christ's disciples have "put on
the new man, created after the likeness of God in true righteousness and holiness" (Eph 4:24).
2505 Truth or truthfulness is the virtue which consists in showing oneself true in deeds and truthful in
words, and guarding against duplicity, dissimulation, and hypocrisy.
2506 The Christian is not to "be ashamed of testifying to our Lord" (2 Tim 1:8) in deed and word.
Martyrdom is the supreme witness given to the truth of the faith.
2507 Respect for the reputation and honor of persons forbids all detraction and calumny in word or
2508 Lying consists in saying what is false with the intention of deceiving one's neighbor.
2509 An offense committed against the truth requires reparation.
2510 The golden rule helps one discern, in concrete situations, whether or not it would be appropriate
to reveal the truth to someone who asks for it.
2511 "The sacramental seal is inviolable" (CIC, can. 983 § 1). Professional secrets must be kept.
Confidences prejudicial to another are not to be divulged.
2512 Society has a right to information based on truth, freedom, and justice. One should practice
moderation and discipline in the use of the social communications media.
2513 The fine arts, but above all sacred art, "of their nature are directed toward expressing in some
way the infinite beauty of God in works made by human hands. Their dedication to the increase of
God's praise and of his glory is more complete, the more exclusively they are devoted to turning men's
minds devoutly toward God" (SC 122).
253 Ex 20:16; cf. Deut 5:20.
254 Mt 5:33.
255 Ps 119:90; Cf. Prov 8:7; 2 Sam 7:28; Ps 119:142; Lk 1:50.
256 Rom 3:4; Cf. Ps 119:30.
257 Jn 1:14; 8:12; cf. 14:6.
258 Jn 12:46.
259 Jn 8:32; Cf. 17:17.
260 Jn 16:13.
261 Mt 5:37.
262 DH 2 § 2.
263 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II,109,3 ad 1.
264 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II,109,3, corp. art.
265 1 Jn 1:6.
266 Jn 18:37.
267 2 Tim 1:8.
268 Acts 24:16.
269 Cf. Mt 18:16.
270 AG 11.
271 St. Ignatius of Antioch, Ad Rom. 4,1:SCh 10,110.
272 St. Ignatius of Antioch, Ad Rom. 6,1-2:SCh 10,114.
273 Martyrium Polycarpi 14,2-3:PG 5,1040; SCh 10,228.
274 Eph 4:24.
275 Eph 4:25; 1 Pet 2:1.
276 Cf. Prov 19:9.
277 Cf. Prov 18:5.
278 Cf. CIC, can. 220.
279 Cf. Sir 21:28.
280 St. Ignatius of Loyola, Spiritual Exercises, 22.
281 St. Augustine, De mendacio 4,5:PL 40:491.
282 Jn 8:44.
283 Cf. 27:16; Prov 25:9-10.
284 CIC, Can. 983 § 1.
285 Cf. IM 11.
286 IM 5 § 2.
287 IM 8.
288 IM 12.
289 IM 12 § 2.
290 Wis 13:3, 5.
291 Wis 7:25-26.
292 Wis 7:29-30.
293 Wis 8:2.
294 Gen 1:26.
295 Cf. Wis 7:16-17
296 Cf. Pius XII, Musicae sacrae disciplina; Discourses of September 3 and December 25, 1950.
297 Heb 1:3; Col 2:9.
298 Cf. SC 122-127.

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