Sunday, February 2, 2014
Life in Christ: The Fifth Commandment
LIFE IN CHRIST
THE TEN COMMANDMENTS
"YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF"
THE FIFTH COMMANDMENT
You shall not kill.54
You have heard that it was said to the men of old, "You shall not kill: and whoever kills shall be
liable to judgment." But I say to you that every one who is angry with his brother shall be liable
2258 "Human life is sacred because from its beginning it involves the creative action of God and it
remains for ever in a special relationship with the Creator, who is its sole end. God alone is the Lord of
life from its beginning until its end: no one can under any circumstance claim for himself the right
directly to destroy an innocent human being."56
I. RESPECT FOR HUMAN LIFE
The witness of sacred history
2259 In the account of Abel's murder by his brother Cain,57 Scripture reveals the presence of anger and
envy in man, consequences of original sin, from the beginning of human history. Man has become the
enemy of his fellow man. God declares the wickedness of this fratricide: "What have you done? The
voice of your brother's blood is crying to me from the ground. And now you are cursed from the
ground, which has opened its mouth to receive your brother's blood from your hand."58
2260 The covenant between God and mankind is interwoven with reminders of God's gift of human life
and man's murderous violence:
For your lifeblood I will surely require a reckoning. . . . Whoever sheds the blood of man, by
man shall his blood be shed; for God made man in his own image.59
The Old Testament always considered blood a sacred sign of life.60 This teaching remains necessary for
2261 Scripture specifies the prohibition contained in the fifth commandment: "Do not slay the
innocent and the righteous."61 The deliberate murder of an innocent person is gravely contrary to the
dignity of the human being, to the golden rule, and to the holiness of the Creator. The law forbidding it
is universally valid: it obliges each and everyone, always and everywhere.
2262 In the Sermon on the Mount, the Lord recalls the commandment, "You shall not kill,"62 and adds
to it the proscription of anger, hatred, and vengeance. Going further, Christ asks his disciples to turn
the other cheek, to love their enemies.63 He did not defend himself and told Peter to leave his sword in
2263 The legitimate defense of persons and societies is not an exception to the prohibition against the
murder of the innocent that constitutes intentional killing. "The act of self-defense can have a double
effect: the preservation of one's own life; and the killing of the aggressor. . . . The one is intended, the
other is not."65
2264 Love toward oneself remains a fundamental principle of morality. Therefore it is legitimate to
insist on respect for one's own right to life. Someone who defends his life is not guilty of murder even
if he is forced to deal his aggressor a lethal blow:
If a man in self-defense uses more than necessary violence, it will be unlawful: whereas if he
repels force with moderation, his defense will be lawful. . . . Nor is it necessary for salvation
that a man omit the act of moderate self-defense to avoid killing the other man, since one is
bound to take more care of one's own life than of another's.66
2265 Legitimate defense can be not only a right but a grave duty for one who is responsible for the
lives of others. The defense of the common good requires that an unjust aggressor be rendered unable
to cause harm. For this reason, those who legitimately hold authority also have the right to use arms to
repel aggressors against the civil community entrusted to their responsibility.
2266 The efforts of the state to curb the spread of behavior harmful to people's rights and to the basic
rules of civil society correspond to the requirement of safeguarding the common good. Legitimate
public authority has the right and duty to inflict punishment proportionate to the gravity of the
offense. Punishment has the primary aim of redressing the disorder introduced by the offense. When it
is willingly accepted by the guilty party, it assumes the value of expiation. Punishment then, in addition
to defending public order and protecting people's safety, has a medicinal purpose: as far as possible, it
must contribute to the correction of the guilty party.67
2267 Assuming that the guilty party's identity and responsibility have been fully determined, the
traditional teaching of the Church does not exclude recourse to the death penalty, if this is the only
possible way of effectively defending human lives against the unjust aggressor.
If, however, non-lethal means are sufficient to defend and protect people's safety from the aggressor,
authority will limit itself to such means, as these are more in keeping with the concrete conditions of
the common good and more in conformity to the dignity of the human person.
Today, in fact, as a consequence of the possibilities which the state has for effectively preventing
crime, by rendering one who has committed an offense incapable of doing harm - without definitely
taking away from him the possibility of redeeming himself - the cases in which the execution of the
offender is an absolute necessity "are very rare, if not practically nonexistent."68
2268 The fifth commandment forbids direct and intentional killing as gravely sinful. The murderer and
those who cooperate voluntarily in murder commit a sin that cries out to heaven for vengeance.69
Infanticide,70 fratricide, parricide, and the murder of a spouse are especially grave crimes by reason of
the natural bonds which they break. Concern for eugenics or public health cannot justify any murder,
even if commanded by public authority.
2269 The fifth commandment forbids doing anything with the intention of indirectly bringing about a
person's death. The moral law prohibits exposing someone to mortal danger without grave reason, as
well as refusing assistance to a person in danger.
The acceptance by human society of murderous famines, without efforts to remedy them, is a
scandalous injustice and a grave offense. Those whose usurious and avaricious dealings lead to the
hunger and death of their brethren in the human family indirectly commit homicide, which is
imputable to them.71
Unintentional killing is not morally imputable. But one is not exonerated from grave offense if, without
proportionate reasons, he has acted in a way that brings about someone's death, even without the
intention to do so.
2270 Human life must be respected and protected absolutely from the moment of conception. From
the first moment of his existence, a human being must be recognized as having the rights of a person -
among which is the inviolable right of every innocent being to life.72
Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you.73
My frame was not hidden from you, when I was being made in secret, intricately wrought in the
depths of the earth.74
2271 Since the first century the Church has affirmed the moral evil of every procured abortion. This
teaching has not changed and remains unchangeable. Direct abortion, that is to say, abortion willed
either as an end or a means, is gravely contrary to the moral law:
You shall not kill the embryo by abortion and shall not cause the newborn to perish.75
God, the Lord of life, has entrusted to men the noble mission of safeguarding life, and men
must carry it out in a manner worthy of themselves. Life must be protected with the utmost
care from the moment of conception: abortion and infanticide are abominable crimes.76
2272 Formal cooperation in an abortion constitutes a grave offense. The Church attaches the canonical
penalty of excommunication to this crime against human life. "A person who procures a completed
abortion incurs excommunication latae sententiae,"77 "by the very commission of the offense,"78 and
subject to the conditions provided by Canon Law.79 The Church does not thereby intend to restrict the
scope of mercy. Rather, she makes clear the gravity of the crime committed, the irreparable harm
done to the innocent who is put to death, as well as to the parents and the whole of society.
2273 The inalienable right to life of every innocent human individual is a constitutive element of a civil
society and its legislation:
"The inalienable rights of the person must be recognized and respected by civil society and the political
authority. These human rights depend neither on single individuals nor on parents; nor do they
represent a concession made by society and the state; they belong to human nature and are inherent
in the person by virtue of the creative act from which the person took his origin. Among such
fundamental rights one should mention in this regard every human being's right to life and physical
integrity from the moment of conception until death."80
"The moment a positive law deprives a category of human beings of the protection which civil
legislation ought to accord them, the state is denying the equality of all before the law. When the state
does not place its power at the service of the rights of each citizen, and in particular of the more
vulnerable, the very foundations of a state based on law are undermined. . . . As a consequence of the
respect and protection which must be ensured for the unborn child from the moment of conception,
the law must provide appropriate penal sanctions for every deliberate violation of the child's rights."81
2274 Since it must be treated from conception as a person, the embryo must be defended in its
integrity, cared for, and healed, as far as possible, like any other human being.
Prenatal diagnosis is morally licit, "if it respects the life and integrity of the embryo and the human
fetus and is directed toward its safe guarding or healing as an individual. . . . It is gravely opposed to
the moral law when this is done with the thought of possibly inducing an abortion, depending upon the
results: a diagnosis must not be the equivalent of a death sentence."82
2275 "One must hold as licit procedures carried out on the human embryo which respect the life and
integrity of the embryo and do not involve disproportionate risks for it, but are directed toward its
healing the improvement of its condition of health, or its individual survival."83
"It is immoral to produce human embryos intended for exploitation as disposable biological
"Certain attempts to influence chromosomic or genetic inheritance are not therapeutic but are aimed
at producing human beings selected according to sex or other predetermined qualities. Such
manipulations are contrary to the personal dignity of the human being and his integrity and identity"85
which are unique and unrepeatable.
2276 Those whose lives are diminished or weakened deserve special respect. Sick or handicapped
persons should be helped to lead lives as normal as possible.
2277 Whatever its motives and means, direct euthanasia consists in putting an end to the lives of
handicapped, sick, or dying persons. It is morally unacceptable.
Thus an act or omission which, of itself or by intention, causes death in order to eliminate suffering
constitutes a murder gravely contrary to the dignity of the human person and to the respect due to the
living God, his Creator. The error of judgment into which one can fall in good faith does not change the
nature of this murderous act, which must always be forbidden and excluded.
2278 Discontinuing medical procedures that are burdensome, dangerous, extraordinary, or
disproportionate to the expected outcome can be legitimate; it is the refusal of "over-zealous"
treatment. Here one does not will to cause death; one's inability to impede it is merely accepted. The
decisions should be made by the patient if he is competent and able or, if not, by those legally entitled
to act for the patient, whose reasonable will and legitimate interests must always be respected.
2279 Even if death is thought imminent, the ordinary care owed to a sick person cannot be legitimately
interrupted. The use of painkillers to alleviate the sufferings of the dying, even at the risk of shortening
their days, can be morally in conformity with human dignity if death is not willed as either an end or a
means, but only foreseen and tolerated as inevitable Palliative care is a special form of disinterested
charity. As such it should be encouraged.
2280 Everyone is responsible for his life before God who has given it to him. It is God who remains the
sovereign Master of life. We are obliged to accept life gratefully and preserve it for his honor and the
salvation of our souls. We are stewards, not owners, of the life God has entrusted to us. It is not ours
to dispose of.
2281 Suicide contradicts the natural inclination of the human being to preserve and perpetuate his life.
It is gravely contrary to the just love of self. It likewise offends love of neighbor because it unjustly
breaks the ties of solidarity with family, nation, and other human societies to which we continue to
have obligations. Suicide is contrary to love for the living God.
2282 If suicide is committed with the intention of setting an example, especially to the young, it also
takes on the gravity of scandal. Voluntary co-operation in suicide is contrary to the moral law.
Grave psychological disturbances, anguish, or grave fear of hardship, suffering, or torture can diminish
the responsibility of the one committing suicide.
2283 We should not despair of the eternal salvation of persons who have taken their own lives. By
ways known to him alone, God can provide the opportunity for salutary repentance. The Church prays
for persons who have taken their own lives.
II. RESPECT FOR THE DIGNITY OF PERSONS
Respect for the souls of others: scandal
2284 Scandal is an attitude or behavior which leads another to do evil. The person who gives scandal
becomes his neighbor's tempter. He damages virtue and integrity; he may even draw his brother into
spiritual death. Scandal is a grave offense if by deed or omission another is deliberately led into a grave
2285 Scandal takes on a particular gravity by reason of the authority of those who cause it or the
weakness of those who are scandalized. It prompted our Lord to utter this curse: "Whoever causes one
of these little ones who believe in me to sin, it would be better for him to have a great millstone
fastened round his neck and to be drowned in the depth of the sea."86 Scandal is grave when given by
those who by nature or office are obliged to teach and educate others. Jesus reproaches the scribes
and Pharisees on this account: he likens them to wolves in sheep's clothing.87
2286 Scandal can be provoked by laws or institutions, by fashion or opinion.
Therefore, they are guilty of scandal who establish laws or social structures leading to the decline of
morals and the corruption of religious practice, or to "social conditions that, intentionally or not, make
Christian conduct and obedience to the Commandments difficult and practically impossible."88 This is
also true of business leaders who make rules encouraging fraud, teachers who provoke their children
to anger,89 or manipulators of public opinion who turn it away from moral values.
2287 Anyone who uses the power at his disposal in such a way that it leads others to do wrong
becomes guilty of scandal and responsible for the evil that he has directly or indirectly encouraged.
"Temptations to sin are sure to come; but woe to him by whom they come!"90
Respect for health
2288 Life and physical health are precious gifts entrusted to us by God. We must take reasonable care
of them, taking into account the needs of others and the common good.
Concern for the health of its citizens requires that society help in the attainment of living-conditions
that allow them to grow and reach maturity: food and clothing, housing, health care, basic education,
employment, and social assistance.
2289 If morality requires respect for the life of the body, it does not make it an absolute value. It
rejects a neo-pagan notion that tends to promote the cult of the body, to sacrifice everything for it's
sake, to idolize physical perfection and success at sports. By its selective preference of the strong over
the weak, such a conception can lead to the perversion of human relationships.
2290 The virtue of temperance disposes us to avoid every kind of excess: the abuse of food, alcohol,
tobacco, or medicine. Those incur grave guilt who, by drunkenness or a love of speed, endanger their
own and others' safety on the road, at sea, or in the air.
2291 The use of drugs inflicts very grave damage on human health and life. Their use, except on strictly
therapeutic grounds, is a grave offense. Clandestine production of and trafficking in drugs are
scandalous practices. They constitute direct co-operation in evil, since they encourage people to
practices gravely contrary to the moral law.
Respect for the person and scientific research
2292 Scientific, medical, or psychological experiments on human individuals or groups can contribute
to healing the sick and the advancement of public health.
2293 Basic scientific research, as well as applied research, is a significant expression of man's dominion
over creation. Science and technology are precious resources when placed at the service of man and
promote his integral development for the benefit of all. By themselves however they cannot disclose
the meaning of existence and of human progress. Science and technology are ordered to man, from
whom they take their origin and development; hence they find in the person and in his moral values
both evidence of their purpose and awareness of their limits.
2294 It is an illusion to claim moral neutrality in scientific research and its applications. On the other
hand, guiding principles cannot be inferred from simple technical efficiency, or from the usefulness
accruing to some at the expense of others or, even worse, from prevailing ideologies. Science and
technology by their very nature require unconditional respect for fundamental moral criteria. They
must be at the service of the human person, of his inalienable rights, of his true and integral good, in
conformity with the plan and the will of God.
2295 Research or experimentation on the human being cannot legitimate acts that are in themselves
contrary to the dignity of persons and to the moral law. The subjects' potential consent does not justify
such acts. Experimentation on human beings is not morally legitimate if it exposes the subject's life or
physical and psychological integrity to disproportionate or avoidable risks. Experimentation on human
beings does not conform to the dignity of the person if it takes place without the informed consent of
the subject or those who legitimately speak for him.
2296 Organ transplants are in conformity with the moral law if the physical and psychological dangers
and risks to the donor are proportionate to the good sought for the recipient. Organ donation after
death is a noble and meritorious act and is to be encouraged as a expression of generous solidarity. It is
not morally acceptable if the donor or his proxy has not given explicit consent. Moreover, it is not
morally admissible to bring about the disabling mutilation or death of a human being, even in order to
delay the death of other persons.
Respect for bodily integrity
2297 Kidnapping and hostage taking bring on a reign of terror; by means of threats they subject their
victims to intolerable pressures. They are morally wrong. Terrorism threatens, wounds, and kills
indiscriminately; it is gravely against justice and charity. Torture which uses physical or moral violence
to extract confessions, punish the guilty, frighten opponents, or satisfy hatred is contrary to respect for
the person and for human dignity. Except when performed for strictly therapeutic medical reasons,
directly intended amputations, mutilations, and sterilizations performed on innocent persons are
against the moral law.91
2298 In times past, cruel practices were commonly used by legitimate governments to maintain law
and order, often without protest from the Pastors of the Church, who themselves adopted in their own
tribunals the prescriptions of Roman law concerning torture. Regrettable as these facts are, the Church
always taught the duty of clemency and mercy. She forbade clerics to shed blood. In recent times it has
become evident that these cruel practices were neither necessary for public order, nor in conformity
with the legitimate rights of the human person. On the contrary, these practices led to ones even more
degrading. It is necessary to work for their abolition. We must pray for the victims and their
Respect for the dead
2299 The dying should be given attention and care to help them live their last moments in dignity and
peace. They will be helped by the prayer of their relatives, who must see to it that the sick receive at
the proper time the sacraments that prepare them to meet the living God.
2300 The bodies of the dead must be treated with respect and charity, in faith and hope of the
Resurrection. The burial of the dead is a corporal work of mercy;92 it honors the children of God, who
are temples of the Holy Spirit.
2301 Autopsies can be morally permitted for legal inquests or scientific research. The free gift of
organs after death is legitimate and can be meritorious.
The Church permits cremation, provided that it does not demonstrate a denial of faith in the
resurrection of the body.93
III. SAFEGUARDING PEACE
2302 By recalling the commandment, "You shall not kill,"94 our Lord asked for peace of heart and
denounced murderous anger and hatred as immoral.
Anger is a desire for revenge. "To desire vengeance in order to do evil to someone who should be
punished is illicit," but it is praiseworthy to impose restitution "to correct vices and maintain justice."95
If anger reaches the point of a deliberate desire to kill or seriously wound a neighbor, it is gravely
against charity; it is a mortal sin. The Lord says, "Everyone who is angry with his brother shall be liable
2303 Deliberate hatred is contrary to charity. Hatred of the neighbor is a sin when one deliberately
wishes him evil. Hatred of the neighbor is a grave sin when one deliberately desires him grave harm.
"But I say to you, Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, so that you may be sons of
your Father who is in heaven."97
2304 Respect for and development of human life require peace. Peace is not merely the absence of
war, and it is not limited to maintaining a balance of powers between adversaries. Peace cannot be
attained on earth without safeguarding the goods of persons, free communication among men, respect
for the dignity of persons and peoples, and the assiduous practice of fraternity. Peace is "the
tranquillity of order."98 Peace is the work of justice and the effect of charity.99
2305 Earthly peace is the image and fruit of the peace of Christ, the messianic "Prince of Peace."100 By
the blood of his Cross, "in his own person he killed the hostility,"101 he reconciled men with God and
made his Church the sacrament of the unity of the human race and of its union with God. "He is our
peace."102 He has declared: "Blessed are the peacemakers."103
2306 Those who renounce violence and bloodshed and, in order to safeguard human rights, make use
of those means of defense available to the weakest, bear witness to evangelical charity, provided they
do so without harming the rights and obligations of other men and societies. They bear legitimate
witness to the gravity of the physical and moral risks of recourse to violence, with all its destruction
2307 The fifth commandment forbids the intentional destruction of human life. Because of the evils
and injustices that accompany all war, the Church insistently urges everyone to prayer and to action so
that the divine Goodness may free us from the ancient bondage of war.105
2308 All citizens and all governments are obliged to work for the avoidance of war.
However, "as long as the danger of war persists and there is no international authority with the
necessary competence and power, governments cannot be denied the right of lawful self-defense,
once all peace efforts have failed."106
2309 The strict conditions for legitimate defense by military force require rigorous consideration. The
gravity of such a decision makes it subject to rigorous conditions of moral legitimacy. At one and the
- the damage inflicted by the aggressor on the nation or community of nations must be lasting, grave,
- all other means of putting an end to it must have been shown to be impractical or ineffective;
- there must be serious prospects of success;
- the use of arms must not produce evils and disorders graver than the evil to be eliminated. The power
of modem means of destruction weighs very heavily in evaluating this condition.
These are the traditional elements enumerated in what is called the "just war" doctrine.
The evaluation of these conditions for moral legitimacy belongs to the prudential judgment of those
who have responsibility for the common good.
2310 Public authorities, in this case, have the right and duty to impose on citizens the obligations
necessary for national defense.
Those who are sworn to serve their country in the armed forces are servants of the security and
freedom of nations. If they carry out their duty honorably, they truly contribute to the common good
of the nation and the maintenance of peace.107
2311 Public authorities should make equitable provision for those who for reasons of conscience
refuse to bear arms; these are nonetheless obliged to serve the human community in some other
2312 The Church and human reason both assert the permanent validity of the moral law during armed
conflict. "The mere fact that war has regrettably broken out does not mean that everything becomes
licit between the warring parties."109
2313 Non-combatants, wounded soldiers, and prisoners must be respected and treated humanely.
Actions deliberately contrary to the law of nations and to its universal principles are crimes, as are the
orders that command such actions. Blind obedience does not suffice to excuse those who carry them
out. Thus the extermination of a people, nation, or ethnic minority must be condemned as a mortal
sin. One is morally bound to resist orders that command genocide.
2314 "Every act of war directed to the indiscriminate destruction of whole cities or vast areas with
their inhabitants is a crime against God and man, which merits firm and unequivocal
condemnation."110 A danger of modern warfare is that it provides the opportunity to those who
possess modern scientific weapons especially atomic, biological, or chemical weapons - to commit such
2315 The accumulation of arms strikes many as a paradoxically suitable way of deterring potential
adversaries from war. They see it as the most effective means of ensuring peace among nations. This
method of deterrence gives rise to strong moral reservations. The arms race does not ensure peace.
Far from eliminating the causes of war, it risks aggravating them. Spending enormous sums to produce
ever new types of weapons impedes efforts to aid needy populations;111 it thwarts the development of
peoples. Over-armament multiplies reasons for conflict and increases the danger of escalation.
2316 The production and the sale of arms affect the common good of nations and of the international
community. Hence public authorities have the right and duty to regulate them. The short-term pursuit
of private or collective interests cannot legitimate undertakings that promote violence and conflict
among nations and compromise the international juridical order.
2317 Injustice, excessive economic or social inequalities, envy, distrust, and pride raging among men
and nations constantly threaten peace and cause wars. Everything done to overcome these disorders
contributes to building up peace and avoiding war:
Insofar as men are sinners, the threat of war hangs over them and will so continue until Christ
comes again; but insofar as they can vanquish sin by coming together in charity, violence itself
will be vanquished and these words will be fulfilled: "they shall beat their swords into
plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation,
neither shall they learn war any more."112
2318 "In [God's] hand is the life of every living thing and the breath of all mankind" (Job 12:10).
2319 Every human life, from the moment of conception until death, is sacred because the human
person has been willed for its own sake in the image and likeness of the living and holy God.
2320 The murder of a human being is gravely contrary to the dignity of the person and the holiness of
2321 The prohibition of murder does not abrogate the right to render an unjust aggressor unable to
inflict harm. Legitimate defense is a grave duty for whoever is responsible for the lives of others or the
2322 From its conception, the child has the right to life. Direct abortion, that is, abortion willed as an
end or as a means, is a "criminal" practice (GS 27 § 3), gravely contrary to the moral law. The Church
imposes the canonical penalty of excommunication for this crime against human life.
2323 Because it should be treated as a person from conception, the embryo must be defended in its
integrity, cared for, and healed like every other human being.
2324 Intentional euthanasia, whatever its forms or motives, is murder. It is gravely contrary to the
dignity of the human person and to the respect due to the living God, his Creator.
2325 Suicide is seriously contrary to justice, hope, and charity. It is forbidden by the fifth
2326 Scandal is a grave offense when by deed or omission it deliberately leads others to sin gravely.
2327 Because of the evils and injustices that all war brings with it, we must do everything reasonably
possible to avoid it. The Church prays: "From famine, pestilence, and war, O Lord, deliver us."
2328 The Church and human reason assert the permanent validity of the moral law during armed
conflicts. Practices deliberately contrary to the law of nations and to its universal principles are crimes.
2329 "The arms race is one of the greatest curses on the human race and the harm it inflicts on the
poor is more than can be endured" (GS 81 § 3).
2330 "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God" (Mt 5:9).
54 Ex 20:13; Cf. Deut 5:17.
55 Mt 5:21-22.
56 CDF, instruction, Donum vitae, intro. 5.
57 Cf. Gen 4:8-12.
58 Gen 4:10-11.
59 Gen 9:5-6.
60 Cf. Lev 17:14.
61 Ex 23:7.
62 Mt 5:21.
63 Cf. Mt 5:22-39; 5:44.
64 Cf. Mt 26:52.
65 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II,64,7, corp. art.
66 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II,64,7, corp. art.
67 Cf. Lk 23:40-43.
68 John Paul II, Evangelium vitae 56. 69 Cf. Gen 4:10.
70 Cf. GS 51 § 3.
71 Cf. Am 8:4-10.
72 Cf. CDF, Donum vitae I,1.
73 Jer 1:5; cf. Job 10:8-12; Ps 22:10-11.
74 Ps 139:15.
75 Didache 2,2:SCh 248,148; cf. Ep. Barnabae 19,5:PG 2 777; Ad Diognetum 5,6:PG 2,1173; Tertullian,
Apol. 9:PL 1,319-320.
76 GS 51 § 3.
77 CIC, can. 1398.
78 CIC, can. 1314.
79 Cf. CIC, cann. 1323-1324.
80 CDF, Donum vitae III.
81 CDF, Donum vitae III.
82 CDF, Donum vitae I,2.
83 CDF, Donum vitae I,3.
84 CDF, Donum vitae I,5.
85 CDF, Donum vitae I,6.
86 Mt 18:6; cf. 1 Cor 8:10-13.
87 Cf. Mt 7:15.
88 Pius XII, Discourse, June 1, 1941.
89 Cf. Eph 6:4; Col 3:21.
90 Lk 17:1.
91 Cf. DS 3722.
92 Cf. Tob 1:16-18.
93 Cf. CIC, can. 1176 § 3.
94 Mt 5:21.
95 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II,158,1 ad 3.
96 Mt 5:22.
97 Mt 5:44-45.
98 St. Augustine, De civ. Dei, 19,13,1:PL 41,640.
99 Cf. Isa 32:17; cf. GS 78 §§ 1-2.
100 Isa 9:5.
101 Eph 2:16 J.B.; cf. Col 1:20-22.
102 Eph 2:14.
103 Mt 5:9.
104 Cf. GS 78 § 5.
105 Cf. GS 81 § 4.
106 GS 79 § 4.
107 Cf. GS 79 § 5.
108 Cf. GS 79 § 3.
109 GS 79 § 4.
110 GS 80 #3.
111 Cf. Paul VI, PP 53.
112 GS 78 § 6; cf. Isa 2:4.